Physics and statistics
(objectives)
The aim of the course Physics and Statistics is to provide students with knowledge on the fundamentals of applied physics necessary to the performance of their future activity. In particular, the comprehension of physical principles at the base of medical physics and of functioning of medical instrumentation will be addressed. Also, students will be introduced to tools and computer concepts and will be able to read a basic biomedical scientific article, understand its structure and critically evaluate methods and results; handle a simple database and make a descriptive and inferential analysis.
LEARNING OUTCOMES The specific learning outcomes of the program are coherent with the general provisions of the Bologna Process and the specific provisions of EC Directive 2005/36/EC. They lie within the European Qualifications Framework (Dublin Descriptors) as follows: 1. Knowledge and Understanding : • Understand the experimental method and learn the use and transformation of measure units. • Know and understand the proper terminology of physics. • Know and understand the main physical principles and laws concerning kinetics, dynamics, electricity and magnetism, vibration and waves, radiation, nuclear physics and fluids. • Apply these concepts to biological and physiological phenomena in living organisms. • Identify and recognize the physical principles which govern the function of the specific human organs. • carry out a descriptive analysis of a simple database; • evaluate the association between variables; • know the basic principles of correlation and linear regression analysis; • know and apply frequency and effect measurements; • explain how statistical inference is applied to biomedical research; • demonstrate an understanding of probability and its application; • demonstrate ability to manage data and to draw and present quantitative results effectively, using appropriate tables, figures and summaries • describe the nature of the sampling variation and the role of the statistical methods in quantifying it, and be able to calculate the confidence limits and evaluate the hypotheses; • select and use appropriate statistical methods in the analysis of simple data sets; • interpret and evaluate the results of statistical analyses within a scientific publication; • present and discuss the results of statistical analyses in a clear, concise and comprehensible way, • describe the general principles of the calculation of the sample size and power.
2. Applying Knowledge and Understanding • Apply the principles of physics, informatics and statistics to selected problems and to a variable range of situations. • Use the tools, methodologies, language and conventions of physics, informatics and statistics to test and communicate ideas and explanations.
3. Communication Skills • Present the topics verbally in an organized and consistent manner. • Utilize a proper scientific language coherent with the topic of discussion.
4. Making Judgements • Recognize the importance of an indepth knowledge of the topics consistent with a proper medical education. • Identify the fundamental role of a proper theoretical knowledge of the topic in the clinical practice.

Code

90218 
Language

ENG 
Type of certificate

Profit certificate

Module: APPLIED PHYSICS
(objectives)
Aim of the course of Applied Physics within the integrated course of Physics and Statistics (Applied Physics, Medical Statistics and Informatics) is to provide students with knowledge on the fundamentals of applied physics necessary to the performance of their future activity. In particular, the comprehension of physical principles at the base of medical physics and of functioning of medical instrumentation will be addressed. At the end of the course, the students will know the fundamental concepts of application of the Scientific Method to the study of biomedical phenomena (choice and measure of parameters, evaluation of errors), they will be able to describe physical phenomena of complex systems using suitable mathematical tools, they will know the scientific basis of medical procedures and principles of functioning of the equipment commonly used for diagnostics and therapeutics.
LEARNING OUTCOMES The specific learning outcomes of the program are coherent with the general provisions of the Bologna Process and the specific provisions of EC Directive 2005/36/EC. They lie within the European Qualifications Framework (Dublin Descriptors) as follows:
1. Knowledge and Understanding : • Understand the experimental method and learn the use and transformation of measure units. • Know and understand the proper terminology of physics. • Know and understand the main physical principles and laws concerning kinetics, dynamics, electricity and magnetism, vibration and waves, radiation, nuclear physics and fluids. • Apply these concepts to biological and physiological phenomena in living organisms. • Identify and recognize the physical principles which govern the function of the specific human organs.
2. Applying Knowledge and Understanding • Apply the principles of physics to selected problems and to a variable range of situations. • Use the tools, methodologies, language and conventions of physics to test and communicate ideas and explanations.
3. Communication Skills • Present the topics orally in an organized and consistent manner. • Utilize a proper scientific language coherent with the topic of discussion.
4. Making Judgements • Recognize the importance of an indepth knowledge of the topics consistent with a proper medical education. • Identify the fundamental role of a proper theoretical knowledge of the topic in the clinical practice.

Language

ENG 
Type of certificate

Profit certificate

Credits

5

Scientific Disciplinary Sector Code

FIS/07

Contact Hours

50

Type of Activity

Basic compulsory activities

Teacher

Indovina Iole
(syllabus)
Mechanics
 Introduction, Measurement, Estimating : Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures ; Units, Standards, and SI Units ; Converting Units Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis.
 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension : References Frames and Displacement ; Average Velocity ; Instantaneous Velocity ; Acceleration ; Motion at Constant Acceleration.
 Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors : Vectors and Scalars ; Addition of VectorsGraphical Methods ; Subtraction of Vectors and Multiplication of a Vector By a Scalar ; Adding Vectors by Components.
 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion : Force ; Newton's First Law of Motion ; Mass ; Newton's Second Law of Motion ; Newton's Third Law of Motion ; WeightThe Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force ; Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: FreeBody Diagrams ; Problems Involving Friction, Inclines ; Problem SolvingA General Approach
 Circular Motion and Gravitation : Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion ; Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion ; Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
 Work and Energy : Work Done by a Constant Force ; Kinetic Energy and the WorkEnergy Principle ; Potential Energy ; Conservative and Nonconservative Forces ; Mechanical Energy and its Conservation ; Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy ; Other Forms of Energy: Energy Transformations and the Law of Conservation of Energy ; Power.
 Linear Momentum : Momentum and Its Relation to Force ; Conservation of Momentum ; Center of Mass (CM) ; Center of Mass and Translational Motion.
 Rotational Motion : Angular Quantities ; Constant Angular Acceleration ; Torque ; Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia ; Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics ; Rotational Kinetic Energy.
 Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture : the Conditions for Equilibrium ; Solving Statics Problems ; Applications to Muscles and Joints ; Stability and Balance ; Elasticity; Stress and Strain ; Fracture.
Electricity and Magnetism
 Electric Charge and Electric Field : Static Electricity; Electric Charge and its Conservation ; Electric Charge in the Atom ; Insulators and Conductors ; Induced Charge; the Electroscope ; Coulomb's Law ; Solving Problems Involving Coulomb's Law and Vectors ; The Electric Field ; Field Lines ; Electric Fields and Conductors.
 Electric Potential : Electric Potential Energy and Potential Differences ; Relation Between Electric Potential and Electric Field ; Equipotential Lines ; The Electron Volt, a Unit of Energy ; Electric Potential Due to Point Charges ; Capacitance ; Dielectrics ; Storage of Electric Energy.
 Electric Currents : The Electric Battery ; The Electric Current ; Ohm's Law: Resistance and Resistors ; Resistivity ; Electric Power ; Microscopic View of Electric Current.
 DC Circuits : EMF and Terminal Voltage ; Resistors in Series and in Parallel ; Kirchhoff's Rules ; EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery ; Circuits Containing Capacitors in Series and in Parallel ; RC CircuitsResistor and Capacitor in Series.
 Magnetism : Magnets and Magnetic Fields ; Electric Current Produce Magnetic Fields ; Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field: Definition of B ; Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field ; Magnetic Field Due to a Long Straight Wire ; Ampere's Law.
Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday's Law : Induced EMF ; Faraday's Law of Induction; Lenz's Law ; EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor ; Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field.
Vibrations and Waves
 Vibrations and Waves : Wave Motion ; Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal ; Energy Transported by Waves ; Intensity Related to Amplitude and Frequency ; Reflection and Transmission of Waves ; Interference; Principle of Superposition ; Standing Waves; Resonance.
 Sound : Characteristics of Sound ; Intensity of Sound: Decibels ; Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns ; Interference of Sound Waves; Beats ; Doppler Effect.
 Electromagnetic Waves : Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Maxwell's Equations ; Production of Electromagnetic Waves ; Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum ; Energy in EM Waves.
 The Wave Nature of Light :The Visible Spectrum and Dispersion
 Optical Instruments :XRays and XRay Diffraction ; XRay Imaging and Computed Tomography (CT Scan)
Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity
 Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom : Early Models of the Atom ;The Bohr Model.
 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity : Structure and Properties of the Nucleus ; Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces ; Radioactivity ; Alpha Decay ; Beta Decay ; Gamma Decay ; Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws ; HalfLife and Rate of Decay ; Calculations Involving Decay Rates and Halflife.
 Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation : Nuclear Reaction and the Transmutation of Elements ; Measurement of RadiationDosimetry ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Thermodynamics
 Temperature and Kinetic Theory : Atomic Theory of Matter ; Temperature and Thermometers ; Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics ; Thermal Expansion ; The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature ; The Ideal Gas Law ; Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law ; Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Number ; Kinetic Theory and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature.
 Heat : Heat as Energy Transfer ; Internal Energy ; Specific Heat ; Calorimetry ; Latent Heat ; Heat Transfer: Conduction ; Heat Transfer: Convection ; Heat Transfer: Radiation.
 The Laws of Thermodynamics : The First Law of Thermodynamics ; Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law ; Second Law of ThermodynamicsIntroduction.
Fluids
 Fluids : Phases of Matter ; Density and Specific Gravity ; Pressure in Fluids ; Atmospheric Pressure Gauge Pressure ; Pascal's Principle ; Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer ; Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle ; Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity ; Bernoulli's Principle ; Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes, Baseballs, and TIA ; Viscosity ; Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation, Blood Flow.
(reference books)
Douglas C. Giancoli “PHYSICS: Principles with Applications” Seventh edition or subsequent, Pearson Education. Inc
The indicated textbook is just a reference. Students are allowed to adopt the book/books of their choice. Additional material will be provided by the instructor.

Dates of beginning and end of teaching activities

From to 
Delivery mode

Traditional

Attendance

Mandatory

Evaluation methods

Written test
Oral exam



Module: MEDICAL STATISTICS
(objectives)
At the end of the course the student should be able to: understand the importance of medical statistics in the research methodology in the medical field; read a basic biomedical scientific article, understanding its structure and critically evaluating methods and results; handle a simple database, with particular reference to clinical medicine; make a descriptive and inferential analysis.

Language

ENG 
Type of certificate

Profit certificate

Credits

3

Scientific Disciplinary Sector Code

MED/01

Contact Hours

30

Type of Activity

Core compulsory activities

Teacher

Vairo Francesco
(syllabus)
Introduction to biomedical statistics • Types of data, evaluation and presentation of data • Probability: assessment and role of probability • The binomial distribution • Normal distribution • Principles of statistical inference • Inference from a sample mean • Comparison of two averages • Inference from a sample proportion • Comparison between two proportions • Association between two categorical variables • Effect measurement in 2 x 2 tables • Combined analysis for associated binary data • Correlation • Linear regression • Nonparametric methods • Introduction to the calculation of the sample size • Cohort studies • Introduction to survival analysis • Casecontrol studies • Probability • Introduction to multivariate regression • Introduction to logistic regression • Introduction to the Poisson and Cox regression • Strategies of analysis
(reference books)
The lesson slides are the reference point for the study Essential Medical Statistics (Kirkwood, Sterne)

Dates of beginning and end of teaching activities

From to 
Delivery mode

Traditional

Attendance

Mandatory

Evaluation methods

Written test
Oral exam



Module: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
(objectives)
The course aims to introduce students to the tools and computer concepts that will be useful for their future profession in the medical field. The objectives of the course will be achieved through classical lessons, interactive activities and practical exercises using real or realistic data.

Language

ENG 
Type of certificate

Profit certificate

Credits

4

Scientific Disciplinary Sector Code

INF/01

Contact Hours

40

Type of Activity

Core compulsory activities

Teacher

Dimitri Andrea
(syllabus)
1) Introduction to health information systems. The Italian health information system. Health standards for data acquisition, storing and visualization. The electronic medical record.
2) Privacy and security in the management of healthcare data.
3) Introduction to databases. The ER schema. RDBMS: tables, records, fields, queries using the SQL language. Public health databases:  PubMed, Medline, Medline plus.  Cochrane Library
4) Data mining in Healthcare. How to read the output of a statistical package. The use of R.
5) Digital devices, sensors and mobile app for precise medicine. Supporting systems for the physicians.
(reference books)
Handouts by the teacher.
Kathleen Mastrian, Dee McGonigle  Informatics for Health Professionals. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 1 edition (April 25, 2016)
Joseph Tan  EHealth Care Information Systems: An Introduction for Students and Professionals. JosseyBass Inc Pub; 1st edition (May 1st 2012)

Dates of beginning and end of teaching activities

From to 
Delivery mode

Traditional

Attendance

Mandatory

Evaluation methods

Written test
Oral exam



